Penny's ORCiD (ORCID is a nonprofit organization helping create a world in which all who participate in research, scholarship and innovation are uniquely identified and connected to their contributions and affiliations, across disciplines, borders, and time.)

Penny's Publications

Penny was known as Penelope Faulkner until her marriage in 2018 she is now known as Penelope Faulkner Rainford

Modular combinations of Artificial Chemistries - ALIFE 2018 - July 18, 2018 - Authors: Penelope Faulkner Rainford, Angelika Sebald and Susan Stepney - - The paper introduces a modularisation of artificial chemistries (AChems). This allows us to define a standard linking method between AChems. We illustrate the approach with a system that nests a Jordan Algebra AChem (JA AChem) inside agents of SwarmChem, and show how our modular approach allows us to define and experiment with multiple variants in a standard manner. Potential for future formalisation is discussed.

Sub-Symbolic Artificial Chemistries - Inspired by Nature (pp 287-322) - October 27, 2017 - Authors: Penelope Faulkner, Mihail Krastev, Angelika Sebald and Susan Stepney - -  We wish to use Artificial Chemistries to build and investigate open-ended systems. As such, we wish to minimise the number of explicit rules and properties needed. We describe here the concept of sub-symbolic Artificial Chemistries (ssAChems), where reaction properties are emergent properties of the internal structure and dynamics of the component particles. We define the components of a ssAChem, and illustrate it with two examples: RBN-world, where the particles are Random Boolean Networks, the emergent properties come from the dynamics on an attractor cycle, and composition is through rewiring the components to form a larger RBN; and SMAC, where the particles are Hermitian matrices, the emergent properties are eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and composition is through the non-associative Jordan product. We conclude with some ssAChem design guidelines.

Tuning Jordan algebra artificial chemistries with probability spawning functions - ECAL 2017 -September 6, 2017 - Authors:  Penelope Faulkner , Angelika Sebald and Susan Stepney  - - Natural chemistry deals with non-deterministic processes, and this is reflected in some artificial chemistries. We can tune these artificial systems by manipulating the functions that define their probabilistic processes. In this work we consider different probabilistic functions for particle linking, applied to our Jordan Algebra Artificial Chemistry. We use five base functions and their variations to investigate the possible behaviours of the system, and try to connect those behaviours to different traits of the functions. We find that, while some correlations can be seen, there are unexpected behaviours that we cannot account for in our current analysis. While we can set and manipulate the probabilities in our system, it is still complex and still displays emergent behaviour that we can not fully control.

Jordan Algebra AChems: Exploiting Mathematical Richness for Open Ended Design - ALIFE 2016 - July 29, 2016 - Authors: Susan Stepney , Angelika Sebald and Penelope Faulkner -  - the paper  identifies some desired mathematical properties of bonds in an Artificial Chemistry (AChem) that promote complexity and open-ended behaviour (i.e. an AChem not designed to display particular behaviours). We identify the underlying structures created by different properties of mathematical products. We use these to exploit existing algebra to generate a potentially open-ended subsymbolic Achem (ssAChem). We give examples of how our approach leads to interesting behaviour, focused on the structure of composite particles within our system.